However, because of the small number of respondents in some subcategories, these comparisons across sexual orientation subgroups must be considered tentative. Journal of Social Issues, 56 2 Sexual stigma and sexual prejudice in the United States: A conceptual framework.
Balsam, Community sample of lesbians and gay men. Interpersonal contact and heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men: Results from a national survey.
Gender nonconformity and psychological distress in lesbians and gay men. PubMed Google Scholar. American Journal of Public Health84 8— Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment13, — The relationships of cohabiting lesbian and heterosexual couples: A comparison. Homosexuality and alcohol: Observation and research after the psychoanalytic era.
Except for the fact that no lesbians reported having voted for Ralph Nader, the subgroups did not differ significantly on these variables. Washington, DC: Author. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, London. This article focuses on the nexus between cultural heterosexism and individual prejudice against lesbians and gay men.
Although most respondents reported that religion or spirituality provides some guidance in their daily lives, the sample overall reported a fairly low level of religious commitment. Community sample of lesbians and gay men worst, internalized homophobia represents a catch-all pseudo-explanation which colludes with anti-gay and lesbian models of ill-health.
Rather, perceptions of high levels of stigma felt normative stigma motivated people to avoid disclosing their HIV status. ENW EndNote. Hate crimes were less likely than other crimes to be reported to police, and concerns about police bias and public disclosure of their sexual orientation were important factors for victims in deciding whether to report.
Equally, homonegativity may lead to the development of self-defeating personality traits which reflect internal representations of the stereotypical dysfunctional homosexual.